Friday, March 27, 2009

Thanks, Uncle! Gifts to Eleanor de Clare From Edward II

Whatever else one might say about Edward II, he was a generous uncle--at least to his favorite niece, Eleanor de Clare. Here's some of his recorded gifts to her:

1308: 20 marks for her expenses while staying at Rockingham Castle (JCD)

May 8, 1308: 10 marks for her expenses for her journey from Rockingham to the king (JCD)

1310: 100 marks for her expenses for her journey from Northampton to Berwick-on-Tweed to join Queen Isabella, plus another 20 marks as a gift from the king (JCD)

1313: Exchequer grants for her expenses: 10 pounds on October 10; 10 pounds on October 15; 5 pounds on Oct. 27; 5 marks on Oct. 29; 10 pounds on Nov. 7; 10 marks on November 19; 4 pounds and 1 mark on December 11 (JCD)

Feb. 14, 1314: 5 marks (JCD)

Easter 1316: Livery of green cloth, trimmed and lined with miniver. (Edward II, Isabella, Prince Edward, and the Countesses of Hereford, Warwick, and Cornwall, the latter being Piers Gaveston's widow (Eleanor's sister Margaret), also received the livery) (MV)

July 9, 1322: A life interest in the manors of Melton Mowbray and Sonyngdon, with a remainder to Eleanor's son Gilbert. (Calendar of Patent Rolls; the gift was made "out of affection to Gilbert")

September 1323: 13 pieces of sturgeon (AW) (Wisely, the King sent Queen Isabella 20 pieces, thereby avoiding the specter of sturgeon wars between the queen and Eleanor.)

1323: 100 pounds toward the expenses of Eleanor's illness while she was in childbed (JCD)

May 10, 1324, Life interest in the manor of Bramelhanger, again with a remainder to Gilbert (Calendar of Charter Rolls)

April 26, 1326: Grant to Eleanor of the goods of Alan de Newenham, whose goods had been taken into the king's hands after he was indicted for "divers felonies." (Calendar of Patent Rolls)

May 18, 1326: Grant to Eleanor of the keeping of the hundred of Gosecote, to hold until Stephen de Segrave's heir came of age. (Calendar of Patent Rolls) (On May 19, Edward issued an order to make the letters regarding this grant "as hastily as possible and deliver them to the bearer without delay.")

1326: 47 caged goldfinches (RH, MP, AW) (Why the odd number of 47? Were there originally 50, of which three died? Could only 47 goldfinches be found? Inquiring minds wonder.)

200 stockfish (JCD: author does not give the date)

Sugar bought to make sweets for Eleanor (MP)

100 marks on "one brief visit" near the end of Edward II's reign) (MP)

Haines also mentions "privy dining" between uncle and niece and his accommodating her at the royal manor of Sheen, and it's also been noted by Prestwich that medicines were bought for the two of them when they were ill in 1319-20. In 1310, a messenger was given twenty marks for bringing Edward news of Eleanor (JCD), the nature of which is sadly unspecified, and in December 1325, Edward offered prayers to the Virgin for his niece's safe delivery of a child, perhaps John le Despenser or Elizabeth le Despenser (Haines).

Why all of this generosity? There are generally three explanations: (1) Edward II was very fond of Eleanor; (2) Edward II was having sexual relations with Hugh le Despenser the younger, Eleanor's husband, and wanted to keep Eleanor sweet by showering her with gifts; (3) Edward II was having an affair with Eleanor herself. There's probably no way of knowing now which was the case. Both Michael Prestwich and Roy Haines have suggested the third possibility, based on allegations by a Hainault chronicler, Robert Reading's comment that Edward II was engaged in "illicit and sinful unions," and the lack of comparable entries in Edward II's records for other ladies. This can't be ruled out, but it's notable that Edward III treated Eleanor generously once he began to rule on his own and that he considered her to be a fit companion to accompany one of his sisters to her wedding. Though Edward III's court was not a prudish one, it still seems unlikely that he would have treated Eleanor so well had she and his father been slighting his mother by engaging in flagrant adultery.

As for the second possibility, though I think it likely that Edward II and Hugh were lovers, I doubt that the gifts were made just to keep Eleanor from raising a fuss about their relationship, whatever its nature. Had Eleanor been inclined to be petulant, Edward and Hugh probably would have simply stuck her on some remote manor and let her steam in solitude. Moreover, Edward II's generosity to Eleanor long predates his attachment to Hugh, though it's true that the large gifts date from the period when Hugh was the king's favorite.

All in all, I think that the first scenario--that Edward II was fond of Eleanor and treated her as a confidante--is the most likely one. It probably helped, of course, that the king was also fond of her husband.

Sources:
James Conway Davies, The Baronial Opposition to Edward II
Roy Martin Haines, Edward II
Michael Prestwich, Plantagenet England
Malcolm Vale, The Princely Court
Alison Weir, Queen Isabella

9 comments:

Alianore said...

Great post! I tend to agree with your conclusion about the nature of their relationship. When Ed bought Eleanor the caged goldfinches, he also bought her a 'terrine', which as far as I know is a large pot. The chamber entry is funny, as it's in French with the word 'goldfinches' in English: vne terryne et xlvij Goldfynches en vne cage. Wonder if the scribe didn't know the French word?

Maybe the 1310 entry relates to the birth of a child - her son Edward, perhaps, or a child who died young?

Susan Higginbotham said...

Thanks! Maybe the terrine was to put the goldfinch droppings in? And is that one cage? That must have been a big cage!

Has the chamber account for the goldfinches been published anywhere? All I have is the references to the Society of Antiquaries MS.

I think the 1310 entry could well relate to a childbirth--or perhaps to an illness Eleanor had afterward. Damn them for not being more specific!

Ms. Lucy said...

What, thanks for this detailed post- I really enjoyed it:)

Judy said...

Makes me think of my late uncle who was kind to me - I know family relations among royalty are not so simple, but I think Edward was fond of her regardless of other factors, though they could have deepened his regard. As you say, it is speculative. As I learn about Edward, the more I like him personally - but such a disaster as a king!

Alianore said...

The chamber account's never been published, unfortunately. I saw the entry in a book about minstrels, as Edward paid Jake the Trumpeter 10 shillings (I think) for buying the birds and bringing them from Dover to Westminster, and also paid William of Dunstable to look after them till Eleanor arrived at Westminster.

It does just say one cage, which must have been enormous!

Gabriele C. said...

Sugar to make sweets for Eleanor. How sweet. :)

I agree on #1 being the reason. It's just too prosaic for some people. ;)

Carla said...

Reasons 1-3 aren't mutually exclusive, are they?

If the goldfinches were all in one big cage (which must have been a sort of semi-portable aviary), that might explain the peculiar number. Goldfinches flit and fidget about so much that it would be close on impossible to count them accurately - maybe some harrassed clerk just gave up and wrote down 47 because it looks accurate whereas 50 would have been a suspiciously round number.

Barbara Martin said...

This was interesting to read the chamber account details. Thanks for posting this insight into history.

Lady D. said...

Oh to have an uncle like Edward - not so sure about the 47 goldfinches though - a couple would have been sufficient! Perhaps the terrine was an indicator of their fate if they tweeted too much!

I wish we understood medieval relationships better ;-)